Natural language processing for mimicking clinical trial recruitment in critical care: a semi-automated simulation based on the LeoPARDS trial
Abstract: Clinical trials often fail to recruit an adequate number of appropriate patients. Identifying eligible trial participants is resource-intensive when relying on manual review of clinical notes, particularly in critical care settings where the time window is short. Automated review of electronic health records (EHR) may help, but much of the information is in free text rather than a computable form. We applied natural language processing (NLP) to free text EHR data using the CogStack platform to simulate recruitment into the LeoPARDS study, a clinical trial aiming to reduce organ dysfunction in septic shock. We applied an algorithm to identify eligible patients using a moving 1-hour time window, and compared patients identified by our approach with those actually screened and recruited for the trial, for the time period that data were available. We manually reviewed records of a random sample of patients identified by the algorithm but not screened in the original trial. Our method identified 376 patients, including 34 patients with EHR data available who were actually recruited to LeoPARDS in our centre. The sensitivity of CogStack for identifying patients screened was 90% (95% CI 85%, 93%). Of the 203 patients identified by both manual screening and CogStack, the index date matched in 95 (47%) and CogStack was earlier in 94 (47%). In conclusion, analysis of EHR data using NLP could effectively replicate recruitment in a critical care trial, and identify some eligible patients at an earlier stage, potentially improving trial recruitment if implemented in real time.
    author={H. C. {Tissot} and A. D. {Shah} and D. {Brealey} and S. {Harris} and 
            R. {Agbakoba} and A. {Folarin} and L. {Romao} and L. {Roguski} and 
            R. {Dobson} and F. W. {Asselbergs}},
    journal={IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics}, 
    title={Natural Language Processing for Mimicking 
           Clinical Trial Recruitment in Critical Care: 
           A Semi-Automated Simulation Based on the LeoPARDS Trial},